'Six Thinking Hats' is an important and powerful technique. It is used to look at decisions from a number of important
perspectives. This forces you to move outside your habitual thinking style, and helps you to get a more rounded view of a
Many successful people think from a very rational, positive viewpoint. This is part of the reason that they
are successful. Often, though, they may fail to look at a problem from an emotional, intuitive, creative or negative viewpoint.
This can mean that they underestimate resistance to plans, fail to make creative leaps and do not make essential contingency
Similarly, pessimists may be excessively defensive. Emotional people may fail to look at decisions calmly and
If you look at a problem with the 'Six Thinking Hats' technique, then you will solve it using all approaches.
Your decisions and plans will mix ambition, skill in execution, public sensitivity, creativity and good contingency planning.
How to Use the Tool:
You can use Six Thinking Hats in meetings or on your own. In meetings
it has the benefit of blocking the confrontations that happen when people with different thinking styles discuss the same
Each 'Thinking Hat' is a different style of thinking. These are explained below:
- White Hat:
With this thinking hat you focus on the data available. Look at the information
you have, and see what you can learn from it. Look for gaps in your knowledge, and either try to fill them or take account
This is where you analyze past trends, and try to extrapolate from historical data.
- Red Hat:
'Wearing' the red hat, you look at problems using intuition, gut reaction, and
emotion. Also try to think how other people will react emotionally. Try to understand the responses of people who do not fully
know your reasoning.
- Black Hat:
Using black hat thinking, look at all the bad points of the decision. Look at
it cautiously and defensively. Try to see why it might not work. This is important because it highlights the weak points in
a plan. It allows you to eliminate them, alter them, or prepare contingency plans to counter them.
Black Hat thinking helps to make your plans 'tougher' and more resilient. It can also help you to spot fatal flaws and
risks before you embark on a course of action. Black Hat thinking is one of the real benefits of this technique, as many successful
people get so used to thinking positively that often they cannot see problems in advance. This leaves them under-prepared
- Green Hat:
The Green Hat stands for creativity. This is where you can develop creative
solutions to a problem. It is a freewheeling way of thinking, in which there is little criticism of ideas. A whole range of
creativity tools can help you here.
- Blue Hat:
The Blue Hat stands for process control. This is the hat worn by people chairing
meetings. When running into difficulties because ideas are running dry, they may direct activity into Green Hat thinking.
When contingency plans are needed, they will ask for Black Hat thinking, etc.
A variant of this technique is to look at problems from the point of view of different professionals (e.g. doctors, architects,
sales directors, etc.) or different customers.
The directors of a property company are looking at whether they should construct a new office building. The economy is
doing well, and the amount of vacant office space is reducing sharply. As part of their decision they decide to use the 6
Thinking Hats technique during a planning meeting.
Looking at the problem with the White Hat, they analyze the data they have. They examine the trend in vacant office space,
which shows a sharp reduction. They anticipate that by the time the office block would be completed, that there will be a
severe shortage of office space. Current government projections show steady economic growth for at least the construction
With Red Hat thinking, some of the directors think the proposed building looks quite ugly. While it would be highly cost-effective,
they worry that people would not like to work in it.
When they think with the Black Hat, they worry that government projections may be wrong. The economy may be about to enter
a 'cyclical downturn', in which case the office building may be empty for a long time. If the building is not attractive,
then companies will choose to work in another better-looking building at the same rent.
With the Yellow Hat, however, if the economy holds up and their projections are correct, the company stands to make a great
deal of money. If they are lucky, maybe they could sell the building before the next downturn, or rent to tenants on long-term
leases that will last through any recession.
With Green Hat thinking they consider whether they should change the design to make the building more pleasant. Perhaps
they could build prestige offices that people would want to rent in any economic climate. Alternatively, maybe they should
invest the money in the short term to buy up property at a low cost when a recession comes.
The Blue Hat has been used by the meeting's Chair to move between the different thinking styles. He or she may have needed
to keep other members of the team from switching styles, or from criticizing other peoples' points.
Six Thinking Hats is a good technique for looking at the effects of a decision from a number of different points of view.
It allows necessary emotion and skepticism to be brought into what would otherwise be purely rational decisions. It opens
up the opportunity for creativity within Decision Making. The technique also helps, for example, persistently pessimistic
people to be positive and creative.
Plans developed using the '6 Thinking Hats' technique will be sounder and more resilient than would otherwise be the case.
It may also help you to avoid public relations mistakes, and spot good reasons not to follow a course of action before you
have committed to it.